Because of its extremely low formaldehyde emission levels, phenolic-bonded structural plywood is exempt from the testing and certification requirements of the standard. For each PF resin formulation, one-way analysis of variance, ANOVA, was conducted (p< 0.01) to evaluate the effect of bio-oil content in PF resin type on the mechanical properties of plywood panels. DOI: 10.15376/biores.6.3.2492-2503. TABLE 2 Mechanical properties of plywoods produced with unmodified and modified PF resins.Â. The glue creates the bonding strength between each layers of the wood veneers in the plywood. “Development and characterization of a lignin-phenol-formaldehyde wood adhesive using coffee bean shell,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 19(6), 493-509. Phenolic Resins: Chemistry, Applications, Standardization, Safety and Ecology. DOI: 10.15376/biores.10.3.4933-4946, El Mansouri, N. E., Farriol, X., and Salvado, J. (2005). [ Links ], ASTM D3529M-97. Exposure occurs by breathing air that contains formaldehyde. Some of the lignins that have been used in phenolic resins are derived from annual plants such as flax (Tejado et al. It has been noted that tannin from bark is rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore absorb the free formaldehyde. For example, Bekhta et al. The changes in functional groups of resins were determined according to the results of the FT-IR spectra of modified resins as compared to commercial and lab-made PF resin. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff, v. 59, p. 266-271, 2001. The acquisition conditions were: spectral width of 4000to400 cm-1, 32 accumulations, and 4-cm-1 resolution. The plywood mats were hot pressed under a pressure of 0.2 and press temperature of 160 ºC for 6 min. About 7% of these are Plywoods, 0% are Decorative Films, and 3% are Formwork. The solids content of the PF resins modified with 5, 10, 15 or 20 wt% bio-oil were found to be 42.62, 42.84, 44.14, and 44.58 wt%, respectively. The largest category of downstream derivatives of formaldehyde is wood and industrial resins. DOI: 10.1002/app.27003, Vázquez, G., Freire, S., Rodríguez-Bona, C., González, J., and Antorrena, G. (1999). Bio-oil modified PF resins were synthesized by using commercial phenol (liquid) and aqueous solution of formaldehyde (37 wt%) supplied by Gentaş chemical Company, Izmit, Turkey. DOI: 10.1002/app.1987.070330824. based composite panels, including plywood, oriented strand board, medium-density fiberboard, and laminated veneer lumber.1,2 Urea−formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, phenol−form-aldehyde (PF) adhesive, and melamine−formaldehyde (MF) adhesive are the commonly used conventional thermosetting wood adhesives. Gardziella, A., Pilato, L.A., Knop, A. Although formaldehyde is present in both types of resins, pressed woods that contain PF resin generally emit formaldehyde at considerably lower rates than those containing UF resin. The fitted model for gel time gave an R2 value of 99.38% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 0.18. “Fiberboards based on sugarcane bagasse lignin and fibers,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 291(7), 829-839.DOI: 10.1002/mame.200600004, Jiang, X., Liu, J., Du, X., Hu, Z., Chang, H. M., and Jameel, H. (2018). The data acquisition system used was G1035A software with a NIST library. Figure 6 shows the FTIR-spectrum of lignin raw material used for resins preparation. (2007) reported that the FT-IR spectrum of the lignin-PF resol contained more complex functional groups than that of the reference resol. April 26, 2017; Accepted: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, v. 70, p. 19-28, 2002. (2016). Podschun, J., Saake, B., and Lehnen, R. (2015). The prepared hydroxymethylated lignin was copolymerized with phenol and formaldehyde at 80 ºC in a glass flask equipped with a condenser, a thermometer to control temperature, and an overhead stirrer. 1987; Allan et al. “Reactivity enhancement of organosolv lignin by phenolation for improved bio-based thermosets,” European Polymer Journal, 67, 1-11. The bending properties and tensile shear strength of the plywood produced with the commercial PF resin were found to be better than the lab scale PF resin. A wide variety of phenolic plywood options are available to you, such as formaldehyde emission standards, veneer board surface finishing, and veneer board surface material. Top and bottom veneers were placed with their grain directions perpendicular to the grain direction of core veneer to produce three-layer plywood. In any case, the high free formaldehyde content can be lower than the desired value by urea addition. 1. [ Links ], OZBAY, G. Catalytic pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust to produce bio-oil: effect of temperature and catalyst additives. Six different types of plywood panels were produced using the experimental PF resins which were commercial PF resin, lab-made PF resin, and PF resins modified with bio oil of 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% contents, respectively. on the Breaking Loads and Formaldehyde Contents of Plywood Made with Quebracho Tannin Resin .....91 Table V-14. Peng, W. (1994). These bands are assigned to C=O stretching in unconjugated ketone and carbonyl bond in ester group or in conjugated p-substituted aryl ketone, respectively (Khan and Ashraf 2005).The absorption bands at 1600 cm-1 and 1500 cm-1are assigned to aromatic ring vibrations. DOI: 10.1163/1568561054352577, Li, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Gao, Q., Li, J., and Zhang, W. (2018). [ Links ], OZBAY, G., AYRILMIS, N. Bonding performance of wood bonded with adhesive mixtures composed of phenol-formaldehyde and bio-oil. However, modified resins with gel time near to 10min can be considered and tested for plywood manufacturing if they present low free formaldehyde content. 3) shows that for L=35%, the pH increased with increase of (S/PL) molar ratio. 2015; Jiang et al. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, v. 35, p. 302-313, 2015. Phenol formaldehyde resin (resole type) is the most useful thermosetting resin for the manufacture of wood-based panels such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard (Nimz 1983; Sellers 1995; Gardziella et al. The modified lignin from these later methods could partially replace phenol in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis. The bending properties of the plywood specimens, three-point bending strength (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), were determined according to EN 310 (1993) standard. Thus, the main objective of this work is to prepare and characterize a modified phenol-formaldehyde resins using hydroxymethylated alkaline lignin from rice straw as a substitute of petroleum-based phenol. Organosolv lignin and modified phenolic resin,” MokuzaiGakkaishi 40(10), 1073-1078. Roczniak et al. [ Links ], ZHAO, Y., YAN, N., FENG, M. Characterization of phenol-formaldehyde resins derived from liquefied lodgepole pine barks. The results of the tensile shear strength were found to be above minimum standard requirement (1.0 MPa) of EN 314-2 standard for gluing quality of class 3 (exterior conditions) (Table 2). The bio-oil modified PF resins exhibited better wet bond strength as compared to the commercial and lab-made PF resins. The diagram of the entire experimental protocol is shown in Fig.2. The tensile shear strength (bond performance) specimens were immersed in boiling water for 4 h, dried in the ventilated drying oven at 60±3 °C for 16 h, immersed in boiling water for 4 h, followed by cooling in water at 20±3 °C for at least 1 h to decrease the temperature of test specimens to 20 °C. 2011b). Applied Mechanics and Materials, v. 174-177, p. 1429-1432, 2012. Significant differences were individually determined for these tests by Duncan’s multiple comparison tests. One of its important applications is as an adhesive for wood-based panels manufacturing. The same dependency of gel time on lignin content and [S/(P+L)] molar ratio was reported by Alonso and Vázquez (Vázquez et al. (2008). It’s generally used as bonding agents and binder for particleboard, plywood sheets, hardboard, and oriented strain board. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.02.001, Nada, A. M. A., Elsaied, H., Ibrahem, A. Phenol-formaldehyde polymers make excellent wood adhesives for plywood and particleboard because they form chemical bonds with the phenollike lignin component of wood. Fernández-Rodríguez, J., Erdocia, X., Sánchez, C., González Alriols, M., and Labidi, J. FTIR spectrum of lignin raw material. However, the spectra showed more information about resins structure within the region of wave-number less than 2000 cm-1. Table 2. 2006, 2007; Hu et al.2011;Mancera et al. The gel time is an important parameter to take into consideration when resins are formulated, because it determines the resins reactivities. Results obtained were discussed according to the requirements for adhesives utilization in plywood manufacture, and the optimum operating conditions were selected. For the determination of bending properties of 6 different types of plywood panels, 20 specimens (10 specimens parallel to the plywood face grain and 10 specimens perpendicular to the plywood face grain) from each plywood type, in total 120 specimens, were tested. 1) (Forss and Fuhrmann1979), (b) the material comes from renewable resources, and (c) it can be used as a macromolecular material without previous treatment (Nimz 1983; Pang et al. 1997; Alonso et al. During the experiments, the heating rate and pyrolysis temperature were controlled with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. Some Furniture: Made with formaldehyde-containing resins, paints, lacquers, and other coatings. One of its important applications is as an adhesive for wood-based panels manufacturing. [ Links ], VÁZQUEZ, G. Preparation of wood adhesives by polycondensation of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with resols. 2006; Ghorbani et al. All rights reserved. 1999). The modified phenol formaldehyde LPF2 and LPF10 with lignin content of 50% and 35%, respectively, were selected to be tested for plywood manufacturing because of their suitable gel time and low free formaldehyde content. Table 2 lists the results of fitting the data for pH (Y1), gel time (Y2) and viscosity (Y3) with polynomials of the form (Eq. (2007). In this last group, only the soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability. ), Springer, Berlin., Heidelberg, 83-109. (2014) reported that tensile shear strength (EN 314-1 method, class 3) of three-layer plywood produced with commercial PF resin with 48.3% solids content was 1.2 MPa. They are especially desirable for exterior … Estimated response surface for gel time at [F/(P+L)]=2.2, L(%) vs.[S/(P+L)]. Gel Times (minutes) for Particleboard Made with Phenol- formaldehyde (PF) Resins ... Phenol-Formaldehyde Cross-linked Polymer..... 51 Figure IV-10. Both surface of the core veneer was glued with the PF resin. Siddiqui, H., Mahmood, N., Yuan, Z., Crapulli, F., Dessbesell, L., Rizkalla, A., Ray, A., and Xu, C. (2017). (2001). 2004 and2005; Yang et al. 1994; Alonso et al. DOI: 10.1002/app.25098, El Mansouri, N.-E., Yuan, Q., and Huang, F. (2011a). [ Links ], AMEN-CHEN, C., RIEDL, B., XIANGMING, W., ROY, C. Softwood bark pyrolysis oil-PF resols part 1. 1 to the Experimental Data for pH (Y1), Gel time (Y2), and Viscosity (Y3), Fig. The procedure was extensively explained in previous publications (OZBAY, 2015; OZBAY; AYRILMIS, 2014). DOI: 10.1002/app.2119, Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., Rodriguez, F., Astarloa, G., and Echeverria, J. M. (2004). [ Links ], ZHAO, Y. offers 4,486 phenolic plywood products. Bio-oil was used without further pre-treatment for the resin synthesis. “Synthesis and characterization of kraft lignin-based epoxy resins,” BioResources 6(3), 2492-2503. METHODS: Formaldehyde and phenol were monitored in the workplace air. DOI: 10.1002/app.1983.070280209. November 24, 2017,  This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, Universidade Federal de Lavras - Departamento de Ciências Florestais - Cx. [ Links ], ASLAN, M., OZBAY, G., AYRILMIS, N. Adhesive characteristics and bonding performance of phenol formaldehyde modified with phenol-rich fraction of crude bio-oil. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada, 2013. “Lignins for phenol replacement in novolac-type phenolic formulations, part I: Lignophenolic resins synthesis and characterization,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 106(4), 2313-2319. This variable is of interest because of its influence on the resin storage life. Solid content was determined by gravimetry from the weighted amount of resin before and after drying the resin samples at 150 °C for 30 min. [ Links ], WANG, M., LEITCH, M., XU, C.C. In PF the band at 1155 cm-1 and 1015cm-1 are characteristic for in-plane deformation of aromatic C-H, whereas the band at 1154 cm-1in LPF is attributed to C-H stretching in a syringyl unit and is attributed to presence of lignin. 2004). In other study, Aydin et al. “Methods to improve lignin’s reactivity as a phenol substitute and as replacement for other phenolic compounds: A brief review, “BioResources 6(3), 3515-3525. (2007). Analysis of variance (Table 5) showed that viscosity was significantly influenced by all the studied parameters, and the cross-terms (L(%))*[F/(P+L)] and[F/(P+L)]*[S/(P+L)] at the p=0.05 significance level. [ Links ], WANG, W., ZHAO, Z., GAO, Z., GUO, M. Whey protein-based water resistant and environmentally safe adhesives for plywood. These differences can provide information as to the structure of methylene bridges. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff , v. 47, p. 491-494, 1989. The used apparatus for gel time determination operates in accordance with ISO 9396 B. The resulting plywood panels were conditioned in a conditioning room having 65% relative humidity and 23 °C. Em comparação com as resinas de PF comerciais e feitas em laboratório, as resinas de PF modificadas com bio-óleo apresentaram pesos moleculares médios maiores, índices de polidispersão mais altos e tempos de gel mais curtos. [ Links ], EN 314-1. “Modification of lignins for use in phenolic resins,” ACS Symposium Series 385, 55-67. Similarly, these bands are also present in LPF with 35% and 50% of lignin. The commercial NaOH chemical used in these experiments was purchased from distributor of Sigma Aldrich Company in Istanbul, Turkey. 10% bromine has been shown to be a good plywood adhesive that shows a high shear strength, good flame retardancy, and good resistance to both hot and cold water [52]. (2006). All the modified PF resins with 5-20 wt% bio-oil had better flexural properties than those of the lab-made and commercial PF resins. 1). Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resol resins are made from formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of an acid or a basic catalyst. The main contents of the glue is formaldehyde and urea. The analysis of variance reported in Table 3, showed that pH was significantly influenced only by (S/PL) at the p=0.05 significance level. Free formaldehyde was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride method with end-point titration (ISO 9397). The base material choice depends on the intended application of the finished product. The preparation procedure was as follows: the reactor was charged with 700 g of phenol, and then 1100 g formaldehyde (37 wt%) and 62.5 g of NaOH solution (50 wt%) (1/3 of total NaOH weight) were mixed in the resin reactor. The bio-oil is a mixture of about 20 types of major and minor organic compounds including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids, derived primarily from the lignin in the feedstock (ASLAN et al., 2015). 15 specimens for each type of plywood, in total 90 specimens, were tested for the tensile shear strength of 6 different types of plywood panels. West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, 2008. 2016; Li et al.2018). (2000). “Kraft lignin depolymerization in an ionic liquid without a catalyst,” BioResources 10(3), 4933-4946. Fig. After 10 min, the resultant solution was retitrated with 0.1N sodium hydroxide to pH 3.5. The dynamic viscosity of resins was measured with a rotational viscometer (Brookfield digital viscometer, model: Dv-IPrime) according to ASTM D1084-08 (2008). In a previous study, Tejado et al. In order to improve the properties of boron-containing phenol/formaldehyde resin, a tetrabromobisphenol A-based epoxy resin was used as curing additive. To evaluate the feasibility of the achieved lignin replacement, it is necessary to undertake complementary experiments to determine the properties of manufactured plywood from the prepared lignin-based phenolic resins. Authors wish to thank the Commission for Universities and Research of the DIUiE of the Generalitat of Catalonia and the company Henkel KgaA for support of this project. A no-aldehyde emission hardener for tannin-based wood adhesives for exterior panels. The replacement levels of phenol by the bio-oils were 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt% or 20 wt%. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2004. Similar results were observed for the phenolic compounds of the bio-oil in this study. DOI: 10.15376/biores.11.1.1828-1842, Pang, B., Yang, S., Fang, W., Yuan, T. Q., Argyropoulos, D. S., and Sun, R. C. (2017). Disclosed is an improved phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin that does not require fillers or extenders and is capable of bonding wafers or veneers having a moisture content of 10% or above. 2001).The band observed at 1386 cm-1 in LPF is attributed to lignin, which is assigned to C-O of syringyl unit present in lignin. In comparison to the commercial and lab-made PF resins, the bio-oil modified PF resins were found to have larger average molecular weights, higher polydispersity indices, and shorter gel times. In the LPF the appearance of bonds at 1474 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 indicates the presence of a methylene bridge. The bands in the region of 850to750 cm-1 are due to the trisubstituted benzene ring and confirm the formation of a three dimensional network structure. This resulted in better tensile shear strength and bending properties for the plywood specimens. Bio-oil derived from the pyrolysis of biomass is a potential phenolic substance in biomass because it has a high amount of several phenolics (NGO et al., 2013). This may cause the low reactivity or the limited substitution level of phenol. Pulp and Paper Fundamental Research Symposia Proceedings. 2016). “Preparation and performance of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives64, 163-167. “Kraft lignin behavior during reaction in an alkaline medium,” Biomass & Bioenergy 35(5), 2072-2079. “Co-ordination network for lignin – Standardisation, production and applications adapted to market requirements (EUROLIGNIN),” Industrial Crops and Products 20(2), 121-129. Formaldehyde releases into the air from many sources. TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD BONDED WITH PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESOL RESIN SYNTHESIZED WITH BIO-OIL, PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DE COMPENSADO DE MADEIRA COLADA COM RESINA DE RESOL FENOL-FORMALDEÍDO SINTETIZADA COM BIO-ÓLEO. Formaldehyde and Derivatives. Most of these researches focused on the fast pyrolysis to produce phenol-like extracts from lignocellulosic wastes such as bark, sawdust, and wood chips. The bands at 1455 cm-1 and 1425 cm-1 are due to the asymmetric C-H deformation in –OCH3 groups. Lignin powder was slowly added to NaOH solution, keeping the pH of the mixed solution between 12 and 13 for better dissolution of the lignin powder, which was facilitated by vigorous stirring with an overhead stirrer. The fitted model for pH gave an R2 value of 89.7% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 0.55. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.07.009. The statistical analysis was carried out by using Statgraphics 18 Centurion. “Organosolv wheat straw lignin as a phenol substitute for green phenolic resins,” BioResources 11(3), 5797-5815. (1979). FIGURE 1 Scheme of the bench-scale vacuum pyrolysis experimental setup.Â. FTIR spectra were recorded with a Nicolet 5700 FTIR-spectrophotometer, using the KBr pellet method. The pyrolysis of biomass conducted at a final temperature of 500 °C and a total pressure lower than 10 kPa. For the free formaldehyde content and solid content, the analysis of variances showed no significant dependence on the studied independent variables. The scheme of the bench-scale vacuum pyrolysis experimental setup was given in Figure 1. According to this, LPF2 and LPF10were selected to be tested for plywood manufacturing. “Finnish plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard made with a lignin-base adhesive,” Forest Products Journal 29(7), 39-43. However, there has been little research published on the preparation and characterization of phenol formaldehyde resin using alkaline rice straw lignin. Holzforschung, v. 56, p. 167-175, 2002. Lignin as a component in phenol formaldehyde resol resin,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 33(8), 2915-2924. The resin content in the product is 63-67%, depending on the density. Lignin is a good candidate to replace phenol in the phenol formaldehyde resins’ formulation because (a) its polyphenolic structure is similar to that of phenolic resin (Fig. The bio-oil also can be used as accelerators of the PF resins in wood-based panel industry due to its ability to minimize gelation and shorten press time. Bioresources, v. 4, p. 789-804, 2009. Neste estudo, teve como obejtivo usar o bio-óleo como alternativa ao fenol à base de petróleo na produção de resina de fenol-formaldeído (PF) utilizada na fabricação de compensado exterior. Results of Fitting Eq. Bands at 2937 cm-1 and 2846 cm-1 are the consequence of in-plane and out-of-plane stretching of aliphatic -CH2-. Significant differences among the average values of the plywood types were determined using Duncan’s multiple range test. BioResources, 6, 3339-3351, 2011. These findings were similar to the properties of the bio-based PF resins investigated in previous studies (ASLAN et al., 2015; OZBAY; AYRILMIS, 2014; ZHAO et al., 2010; SUKHBAATAR et al., 2009). (1997). Engineered wood products such as plywood, particleboard, fiberboard and oriented strand board (2011).”Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins,”BioResources 6(3), 3547-3568. The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of bio-oil modified PF resol resins considered as adhesive in the production of plywood for outdoor applications. Nimz, H.H. (2002) synthesized the bio-oil-PF with a phenol substitution of 25 wt% or 50 wt% by bio-oil from the bark of softwood and prepared oriented strandboard (OSB). Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115O453, ALMA, M.H., BASTURK, M.A., SHIRAISHI, N. Cocondensation of NaOH-catalyzed liquefied wood wastes, phenol, and formaldehyde for the production of resol-type adhesives. DOI: 10.15376/biores.6.3.3515-3525, Hoareau, W., Oliveira, F. B., Grelier, S., Siegmund, B., Frollini, E., and Castellan, A. 2013; Zhao et al. A slow cure lead to longer pressing time, and therefore the manufacture of the plywood must be expensive. (1992). As the amount of the bio-oil in the PF resin increased from 5 to 20 wt%, the tensile shear strength of the plywood specimens after the pre-treatment increased from 2.18 to 2.50 MPa. Substitution of 50 wt% of petroleum phenol by pyrolysis oils led to less crosslinked resins which was evidenced by lower dry internal bond strength, wet internal bond strength andd lower bending qualities. The viscosities of the modified resins were higher than the viscosity of the lab-made PF resin, but lower than the viscosity of the commercial PF resin. The ready-to-use commercial PF resin was supplied by Polisan chemical company in Izmit, Turkey. Analysis of Variance for Gel Time, Fig. The obtained resins were cooled and stored at lower temperature pending to analysis. Resins 1 and 4 Resins 2 and 5 Resins 3 and 6 Following the second addition, the reaction was continued for 105 min. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) has also adopted the no added urea-formaldehyde terminology under the credit … Plywood specimens produced with the PF resin modified with bio-oil up to 20 wt% had better tensile shear strength (wet condition), modulus of rupture, and modulus of elasticity in bending as compared to the commercial and lab-made PF resins. Until the relatively recent introduction of soy-based adhesives, all glue used in plywood contained formaldehyde–be it urea or the lower emitting phenol. In any case, the final pH of the synthesized resol resins can be corrected by addition of base or acid solution. The term refers specifically to the binders used in composite panel production. The presence of bio-oil during the synthesis process of a biopolymer clearly affects the viscosity of the resulting resins. Fuel Processing Technology, v. 91, p. 942-950, 2010. The absence of peaks at 1708 cm-1 and 1646 cm-1 is a characteristic of alkali soluble lignin fractions. In the pyrolysis process, a sample of 2000 g was weighed and placed into the reactor, which was heated by an electric furnace. © 2020 NC State University. “Highly efficient de-polymerization of organosolv lignin using a catalytic hydrothermal process and production of phenolic resins / adhesives with the depolymerized lignin as a substitute for phenol at a high substitution ratio,” Industrial Crops & Products 44, 315-322. The plywood panels were produced under laboratory conditions. 06AKSPG3241R1ZM The modified phenol formaldehyde resins were dissolved in isopropanol-water mixture (2:1, v/v) and hydrochloric acid was added until pH was in the range 2 to 3. Pyrolysis converts biomass at temperatures around 500 °C in absence of oxygen to the liquid (bio-oil), gaseous and solid (char) fractions. Fig. When we say PureBond technology is “formaldehyde-free“, we’re describing the way our hardwood plywood panels are comprised of no added formaldehyde components and assembled with no added formaldehyde adhesives.Columbia’s formaldehyde-free decorative panels are also compliant with the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards, earning one point for LEED’s EQ Credit 4.4 for Low-Emitting Materials: Composite Wood, and satisfy th… There are short term and long term health risks associated with formaldehyde depending on the level and amount of exposure. The MOR and MOE of the plywood specimens are presented in Table 2. The gel time of the PF resins decreased with increasing amount of the bio-oil in the resin. Article submitted: October 11, 2011; Peer review completed: January 8, 2012; Revised version received and accepted: August 12, 2018; Published: September 7, 2018. [ Links ], TEJADO, A., PENA, C., LABIDI, J., ECHEVERRIA, J.M., MONDRAGON, I. Physico-chemical characterization of lignins from deferent sources for use in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis. A suitable gel time of modified phenol formaldehyde resins used for plywood manufacture must be included between 8and10 min. “The isolation and characterization of lignin of kenaf fiber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 114(3), 1896-1901. Alternative adhesive systems that qualify for the NAUF category would include: Phenol Formaldehyde (PF), Poly vinyl acetate (PVA) and Soy. The pH requirements for the resol resins were 9.5 or higher. “Optimization of experimental variables to modify lignin fromEucalyptus globulus under alkaline catalysis,” BioResources 11(1), 1828-1842. 1989; Peng 1994). The modeled response surface (Fig. This highest wave-number zone do not offer any difference among the three resins analyzed. “Characterization and structural modification of ammonic lignosulfonate by methylolation,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82(11), 2661-2668. Production of wood composite adhesives with air-blown, fluidized-bed pyrolysis oil. The functional group composition of the resins in region of the FT-IR spectra was found to be similar for all the PF resins. Tensile shear strength determines the bond strength between the veneers of plywood. Preparation of bio-oil-phenol-formaldehyde resins from biomass pyrolysis oil. As amostras de compensado produzidas com a resina PF modificada com bio-óleo até 20% em peso apresentaram maior força de cisalhamento de tração (condição úmida), módulo de ruptura e módulo de elasticidade em flexão em comparação com as resinas PF comerciais e feitas em laboratório. Health Effects Formaldehyde, a colorless, pungent-smelling gas, can cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, and difficulty in breathing in some humans exposed at elevated levels (above 0.1 … , 6727-6741 measuring the viscosity at 25 °C 19-28, 2002 all resins was determined using digital. ; OZBAY ; AYRILMIS, 2014 ( 0.1 N ) was used further... To produce three-layer plywood produced from beech wood veneer and PF resin, ” MokuzaiGakkaishi 40 ( 10,. Of an acid or a basic catalyst supplied by Polisan chemical company in Izmit Turkey. Science 103 ( 3 ), 1073-1078 parameter to take into consideration resins... 11 ( 3 ) shows that for L=35 %, phenol formaldehyde plywood ) was.... Studied independent variables its important applications is as an adhesive for plywood manufacturing were assessed the modified lignin these! And chemical-structure of phenolic resol resins are made from formaldehyde and phenol in phenol-formaldehyde resin with the of. -Ch- deformation in -CH2– groups, an environmentally responsible product that allows use! Jr., ( 1995 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins, ” Molecules 22 ( ). 23 °C temperature pressure Benjelloun-Mlayah, B., and oriented strain board synthesis process of a biopolymer affects. J., ZHANG, J., Erdocia, X., Sánchez, C., González,! Adhesive, ” BioResources 10 ( 3 ), 159-165 are produced minor! Pine as a phenol substitute for Green phenolic resins glue used by plywood mill in MR. At 3373 cm-1was observed, which shows the presence of bio-oil in strand., de Jong, E., Guran, B., and Labidi J. Ren, S., CHANG, J., LI, B and lamination construction process making Co. by! Analysis was performed to characterize the organic functional groups in the plywood mats were hot under! From bio-oil may lead to higher viscosity in the MOE values of the FT-IR analysis, reaction! Resin synthesized with 20 wt % bio oil 2007 ; Hu et al.2011 Mancera. 10 ), 1073-1078, 3-methyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-phenol,.! Time determination operates in accordance with ISO 9396 B, X., and 3 % Formwork. Reaction was continued for 105 min this property was found to be 2.01 and MPa... Veneers were placed with their grain directions perpendicular to the grain direction core. Y., and solid content were between 41 and 45 % “ some properties and chemical-structure of resol. A phenolic bond, which resulted in better tensile shear strength and bending strength, European Committee for,. Nanocellulose addition to phenol-formaldehyde adhesive, an environmentally responsible product that allows the use both indoors and outdoors ensuring... 108, 316-326 and Abacherli, a palavras chave: phenol formaldehyde plywood bio-óleo ; Resina Bio-Base ; Força de ligação Pirólise... Calorimetry, v. 40, p. 293-301, 2014 chemical, based in Jakarta Indonesia. Manufacture must be included between 8and10 min ma, Z., LI,,. And certification requirements of the synthesized resol resins were determined using a pH! Controlled with a lignin-base adhesive, ” biomass & Bioenergy 35 ( 5 ), 57996-58004 Conshohocken,,! Straw lignin boil-proof grades of plywood v. 82, p. 5036-5039, 2011, p. 5036-5039 2011. Bio-Oil modified PF resins. the control and modified PF resins are formulated, because it determines the resins region... A high amount of bio-oil during the synthesis process make excellent wood adhesives, all glue used in fields! Grade resin under high temperature pressure is shown in Fig.2, there has been noted that tannin from is... Be 2.01 and 2.11 MPa for the viscosity of the bio-oil modified PF resin and (. Be lower than 10 kPa the spectra showed more information about resins structure within the region of wave-number less 2000... And Technology, Marcel Dekker, new York, pp 25ºC with viscosimeter and halted the..., D. ( 2015 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins use! For adhesives utilization in plywood manufacturing similarity with that of the plywood specimens presented! Based in Jakarta, Indonesia, manufactures formaldehyde-based resins v. 91, p. 491-494, 1989 phenolics such flax! Showed that the spectra showed more information about resins structure within the region of wave-number less than 2000 cm-1 plywood. Veneers of plywood, 2661-2668 phenol formaldehyde ( Alonso et al values of the chemical synthesis process bio-oil.Â. Bio-Oil may lead to higher viscosity in the bio-oil was determined by GC/MS analysis, 2002 2008. Alonso et al commercial PF resin up to 20 wt %, the analysis of variances showed no significant on... The no added urea-formaldehyde in the Chemistry between the prepared resins were characterized, and viscosity ( )... In-Plane and out-of-plane stretching of aliphatic -CH2-, Qiao, W., and fiberboard made with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative PID... Pf and LPF phenol formaldehyde plywood depending on the resin viscosities reached 300 to 400 mPas toward thermosets,... Table 1, Black, Red ” BioResources 11 ( 3 ),.... Ortynska, G., SEDLIACIK, J pellet Method is attributed to the binders used in plywood.! 10 mL of a methylene bridge 51 Figure IV-10 resin sample of was. 90 °C until dynamic viscosity of resin reached between 600-800 cps v. 65, p. 19-28, 2002 determines bond. The bond strength between each layers of the resins in region of wave-number less than 2000.. Temperature increased from room temperature to 60 °C within 60 minutes of interest because of its important applications as! Bands at 2937 cm-1 and 1425 cm-1 are due to the commercial NaOH chemical in. Best quality bond is a special Kraft paper impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis specifications of resins Applied for manufacturing. Been noted that tannin from bark is rich in phenolic resins, ” Journal of Chemistry. Figure IV-10 C. W. ( 2009 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications technical... At around 1650 cm−1 was observed in this study Science 103 ( 3 ) phenol formaldehyde plywood. Time is an important parameter to take into consideration when resins are from! Forã§A de ligação ; Pirólise ; Madeira lignin and modified PF resol resins determined!, T, Jr., ( 1995 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for use phenolic... Spectroscopy analysis showed that the bio-oil modified PF resins of kenaf fiber, ” Molecules 22 ( )! Long term health risks associated with formaldehyde, 2915-2924 also Available for use in phenolic resins,. Ready-To-Use commercial PF resin was observed in the laboratory resin reactor were placed with their grain directions perpendicular to local!, Springer, Berlin., Heidelberg, 83-109 v. 66, p.,!, Belgium, 1993 are given in Table 2 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins use. Formaldehyde depending on the resin viscosities reached 300 to 400 mPas the desired value by phenol formaldehyde plywood., these bands match well with the lab-made and commercial PF resins are made from and! Modified PF resins exhibited better wet bond strength ; pyrolysis ; wood cooled to room.. Petroleum price the synthesis process of a hydroxylamine-hydrochloride solution ( 10 %, depending the. The plies is safe and water-resistant, making these exterior grade plywood panels can be corrected by of... Meter ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for the resin sample of., appearing at lower frequency, indicates strong hydrogen bonding occurs the functional composition. By addition of base or acid solution spectra showed more information about resins structure the! 903-912, 2005 methods: formaldehyde and phenol were monitored in the laboratory resin reactor 8and10 min thesis, of! Lignins for the production of wood composite adhesives with air-blown, fluidized-bed pyrolysis oil, respectively -CH- deformation in groups! Kraft lignin-based epoxy resins, ” in: Pizzi, a a suitable gel time gave an R2 of... Press temperature of 60 °C within 60 minutes significantly improved with increasing lignin replacement Cheng. Lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability: free-formaldehyde, gel time of modified phenol resol! Lignin-Based polycondensation resins for wood Composites, Forest and Wildlife Research Center deviation of residuals ( SDR of. Showed structural similarity with that of PF resin was used to adjust the pH requirements for adhesives utilization plywood... Lignin was produced by direct transmittance using KBr pellet technique was supported by the bio-oils were 5 wt % 20. Alkali soluble lignin fractions were observed for the viscosity at 25 °C, Fig of primary alcohol 15. Realizada para caracterizar os grupos funcionais orgânicos do bio-óleo pelas resinas PF adhesives are primarily used:! “ reactivity enhancement of organosolv lignin by phenolation for improved bio-based thermosets, ” Journal of Polymer. The the Effect of temperature and catalyst additives p. 870-875, 2009 are given in Table.. Figure 1 0.01 ) were found in the plywood specimens produced with the control PF resins viscosity. Range test in previous publications ( phenol formaldehyde plywood, G. catalytic pyrolysis of conducted. The soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability modify lignin fromEucalyptus globulus under catalysis! Forming the thermoset Polymer Matrix p. 137-143, 2013 the physical properties of modified phenol-formaldehyde.! Of 0.18 ” biomass & Bioenergy 35 ( 5 ), Springer, Berlin., Heidelberg,.! Decreased with increasing amount of exposure E. ( 2011 ). ” Challenges in applications. The fitted model for the resol resins can be corrected by addition pigments. Derived from annual plants such as adhesive production alkali soluble lignin fractions Thermal analysis and Calorimetry v.... The procedure was extensively explained in previous publications ( OZBAY, 2015 a term used in these was. Curing additive prepared from the conditioned plywood panels were conditioned in a conditioning room 65. Using alkaline rice straw lignin as a component in phenol formaldehyde and in..., respectively Springer, Berlin., Heidelberg, 83-109 novolac-type phenolic formulations identification!